Practical Tips To Take Care Of Yourself

Brushing your teeth is excellent, it is very important and prevents pyorrhea, but the diet factor is key. When it comes to tooth decay, cavities and holes in the teeth, the key is in the diet and in the frequency of exposure to sugar.

But just after eating, it becomes acidic, creating an environment in which your teeth begin to dissolve. So the more you peck between hours, the more periods of acidity there will be in your mouth. The general advice for teeth care is to avoid eating between meals and eating sweets after meals.

Sugar, The Great Enemy Of Teeth

The frequency of exposure to sugar is key to the development of caries. There are hidden sugars in foods that you would never expect. Milk is another food that you can betray, particularly in children: although its calcium content makes it recommended for teeth, it also contains sugar.

Some children fall asleep with a bottle in their mouth or do not brush their teeth after drinking milk, and that also contributes to the formation of cavities.

Acid, Another Enemy

If you have consumed an acidic drink, such as juice or fruit tea, it is better to drink a glass of water afterward to rinse your mouth and dilute the acid. But it is not advisable to brush your teeth during the hour after drinking an acidic drink because the acid softens the tooth enamel, and with brushing, you can damage that protective dental layer.

A Method To Brush Your Teeth Well

According to many dental specialists, it is very difficult to do well because most learn by looking at their mother and tend to repeat what she sees and catch habits from an early age.

Vegetables Against Bad Breath

To get rid of that bad smell of rotten waters, you first need to drink water, which will wash the sulfuric compounds that are generated in the oral cavity and that cause bad breath or halitosis. Then you can consume fibrous vegetables with high water content, such as cucumber, celery, or carrot.

Clean The Cleaner

In order to ensure good oral cleansing – and prevent microorganisms from popping out of the mouth – we recommend thoroughly rinsing the brushes with drinking water after brushing. This will allow removing all traces of toothpaste and food that are trapped between the bristles.

Our experts also advises soaking the brushes in an antibacterial mouthwash. It has been shown to decrease the level of bacteria that grows in the brushes. However, the brushes, no matter how well they are, have a shelf life, which can vary between three and four months or when the bristles are frayed, “whichever comes first.”

Although if the person has been ill, the specialist advises changing the brush once recovered.

Four Steps

The first would be to use antibacterial mouthwash before brushing. This can significantly reduce the burden of bacteria in the mouth and therefore reduce the microorganisms that end up in the bristles after brushing.

The expert reiterates the importance of washing hands “after using the toilet and before grabbing the brush.” This reduces the chances of oral-fecal contamination.

And finally, do not share the toothbrush. “This seems obvious, but a good number of couples admit that they share the brush.”

This means that bacteria are shared in the brushes. “Including those that cause cavities and periodontal diseases.”…

A Comprehensive Guide to Self Directed Individual Retirement Accounts

One of the best ways that you can save for your retirement is to open up your self-directed IRA. These are a little bit different than traditional IRAs or what are called Roth IRAs which typically have some connection to stocks and bonds, as well as other investment options. The owner of the account is going to manage it, taking responsibility for what happens to the underlying assets. You will need to be somewhat knowledgeable as an investor if you decide to use a self-directed IRA, something you need to be aware of, especially the risks that are often involved with this type of investment.

What Is A Self-Directed IRA?

Similar to a Roth IRA, or a traditional one, a self-directed IRA is much the same. You get tax advantages, and you will have to follow eligibility requirements, to maximize how much you can earn. There are limits, such as for 2021 it is about $6000, but if you are 50 and older, $7000 is the number. You can start withdrawing your money when you reach the age of 59.5 years old.

If you want to look at the differences, it comes down to how long you can hold the account and the type of investments that you can choose. Traditional IRAs, as well as Roth IRAs, use mutual funds or CDs, whereas a self-directed IRA will allow you to choose other investment strategies.

How To Open A Self-Directed IRA

Everything that you do with this IRA is completely managed by you. You are going to need to work with third-party services, often called a trustee or a custodian (you can learn more about trustees here). This is what many experts, such as Brian Stivers have been saying.

To open up a self-directed IRA, you will do the following:

You will first need to find a trustee or custodian for the account.
Then you will select investments.
Any due diligence must be made by you for these investments.
It is also important to find a broker so that you can purchase the investment.
Meanwhile, you must ask the trustee or custodian to carry out the transaction.

Many institutions do offer IRAs, however, finding a custodian for your self-directed IRA may not be an option for those businesses. Some organizations will offer custodians, specifically for IRAs, including the Millennium Trust Company. There are typically fees involved in establishing and monitoring these accounts.

All of the transactions will require a certain process, and these are typically for long-term investments. Investors need to be aware of these differences, especially since they are not as liquid. Chris Kampitsis has stated this in detail. None of these are going to be traded in the same way that you would do stocks online with the click of a mouse.

The Many Advantages Of Self-Directed IRAs

You do get to take advantage of several unique characteristics that can help your retirement savings grow. Some of these key advantages include:

-More flexibility for the investments that you are making.
-Built-in earnings and tax breaks for your investments.
-The opportunity to choose investments that are more coordinated with what you know where what you like, such as    investing in precious metal in a self directed gold IRA.
-The chance to become completely diversified in several different investment opportunities which may be related to      your retirement.
-You also have the option of selecting investments that will have a much higher earnings potential.

Disadvantages Of Self-Directed IRAs

There are several disadvantages that you may notice when you are using a self-directed IRA. Some of the main disadvantages will include:

-You cannot invest in certain investments such as real estate, life insurance, or collectibles.
-The investments that you choose to use can be risky.
-There are always going to be high maintenance fees.
-You need to keep records, especially for tax reporting, which can be very complex.
-The IRS may not allow you to participate in certain transactions.
-There will be penalties per IRS guidelines if you do not follow their rules.

The Difference Between Traditional And Roth Self-Directed IRAs

Self-directed IRAs, when you sign up for one, can be either Roth or traditional. Each of these accounts will have certain tax benefits, but there are differences that you need to take into account. When you are using a self-directed IRA, tax deductions on contributions can occur. However, when you take these distributions out later, the withdrawal is going to be taxed as if it is ordinary income. If you decide to use a Roth self-directed IRA, you may not qualify for tax deductions, however, if you decide to withdraw your funds at a later point in time, these will be tax-free.

Is A SDIRA Is Right For You

If you decide to direct many of your own decisions for this type of investment, which will include a lot of paperwork, communication, transactions, and a lot of dedication. A self-directed IRA is perfect for people that are aggressive in their investment strategies. However, it can work if you are specialized in one particular industry. If you have a career in real estate, for instance, or if you have worked with equity companies, self-directed IRAs could be a good fit.

Before making this initial investment through a self-directed IRA, always consider the risks that are involved. Make sure that each investment is one that you are comfortable with… Do not take any more risks than needed to achieve your dreams, goals, and the needs for your retirement.…

Which Eclectic Toothbrush Is The Best?

With so many electric toothbrushes out there these days, how are you to know which one is the best?

Well, the truth is, there is no best.  Best is in the eye of the beholder.  In this article we will simply give you our opinions on what we think about electric toothbrushes, then it is up to you to decide which one you want to buy.

Sonicare Toothbrush

Sonicare is probably the very best electric toothbrush on the market today.  It is the market leader for a reason.  While there is a ton of competitors these days, Sonicare has been making and perfecting the electric toothbrush for twenty years. Everyone else is just trying to play catch up.

Sonicare is a powerful toothbrush that gets a deep clean feeling that no other toothbrush can quite compare with.  It is the closest thing to feeling like your teeth are as clean as after you visit a dentist.  The bristles of the toothbrush move at a very high speed causing the water and suds from the toothpaste to vibrate and help to shake and remove all the bits of food particles and plaque from your teeth.

Sonicare really has done an amazing job with these product.  It is the market leader, and the best you can get, for a reason.  Of course there is a downside, as there always is.

You have to pay for this level of quality.  A Sonicare toothbrush runs around $200 give or take.  That is just a lot to pay for a toothbrush, no matter how you cut it.  Is it worth it?  Absolutely.  You just can’t not take the high price into consideration when making the purchase decision.

Oral B Pro 1000 Toothbrush

The Oral B Pro 1000 has a lot of things going for it.  First of all it’s an electric toothbrush that is reasonably priced.  You can usually find these on sale at Walmart or Amazon for around $40, well within reasonable price range for most people.

But don’t worry about the price, it still has some of the really important features you are looking for like a two minute timer, a gentle brushing apparatus, and it’s head is compatible with a wide variety of different brushes.  When the toothbrush is charged to capacity, it can usually last a good week of twice a day brushing, assuming that you are using the two minute timer.

This might be the best all around electric option, when you factor in price.

Quip Electric

The nicest thing about the Quip is that it is the size of a regular non electric toothbrush.  Most electric brushes are too bulky, and the Quip does not need a recharging pedestal.  It runs on regular Duracell type batteries.  You can also use a rechargable battery if you want.

The sensitive sonic vibrations to clean your teeth, and they claim that this electric toothbrush is quitter than the competition.  It also uses the industry standard two minute timer.

But Quip also has some serious gimmicks that are just foolish.  The have a “specially designed” toothpaste that they recommend you use.  Of course this toothpaste is “ADA accepted” which is just about as gimmicky as it gets.

And if you are really a sucker for garbage useless stuff, you might also be interested in the Quip refillable dental flosser thingy.  It’s ADA accepted and the floss is mint flavored and vegan, whatever the heck that means.

Look, if buying some crappy flossing device is the only way that you are going to start flossing your teeth, then by all means buy that device.  But if you can manage to floss regularly on your own, then just avoid it.

We like the Quip toothbrush, but the rest of the stuff is just plain unnecessary.  To learn more about how to keep your teeth and mouth in great health, check out our article: Visiting The Dentist? Here’s What To Expect From Your Dental Exam.



Here’s What To Expect From Your Exam

family dentists

What To Expect From Your Dental Exam

Dental exams are important to your overall health and well-being, but they can also be nerve-wracking. Many people experience extreme anxiety at the thought of visiting the dentist. If you’re worried about your upcoming exam, you should rest easy. Here is what you can expect when you are at the office.

Your Teeth Will Be Cleaned

Typically, the hygienist will start by giving your teeth a good cleaning. They may also have a hygienist handle this part of your appointment. While brushing and flossing can help to keep your teeth clean, a the professional has access to powerful tools that can truly clean your teeth, like high powered water piks. Another example, they may decide to use a tartar scraper to safely remove tartar from your mouth.

If they see that you have excessive tartar, they may recommend a deep cleaning treatment that includes scaling and root planing. Tartar can increase your risk for gum disease, which is why it’s important to make sure that your mouth is truly clean.

Your Teeth Will Be Checked For Cavities And Signs Of Gum Disease

Once your mouth is clean, the hygienist will inspect your mouth for cavities and other dental problems, such as signs of gum disease. If you do have a cavity, it’s likely that your family dentist will suggest another type of treatment, like fillings or crowns. If you have gum disease, it is possible they may prescribe some sort of medication or a topical antiseptic.

If your dentist sees severe dental problems, they may recommend some sort of surgery. It’s important to schedule regular exams so that you can treat problems before they spiral out of control.

You’ll Be Checked For Signs Of Abnormalities

Many serious diseases, such as lupus and diabetes, can show up in the mouth before other parts of the body. Because of this, your dentist will check your mouth carefully for any signs of abnormalities. In addition to checking your mouth, there will be an examine of your face and your neck.  This is called an oral cancer screening, which is very important but often overlooked.

Your dental health can impact your physical health, which is why scheduling regular exams can be so important. If the hygienist or dentist examining you does see any warning signs, it’s likely that they’ll have you schedule an appointment with your doctor.

You Might Need Digital X-Rays

Not all dental issues can be diagnosed through an exam alone. In some cases, your dentist may order an X-ray or another type of diagnostic procedure. This will allow your dentist to see your teeth more clearly so that they can provide the proper diagnosis.

You shouldn’t necessarily assume that you’ll have an X-ray during your exam. If your dentist doesn’t notice any abnormalities, then they may not think that a radio-graph is necessary. With that said, these kinds of diagnostic procedures are fairly common, and you shouldn’t be surprised if you need to have an X-ray done.

These days most offices use digital X-rays, which are minimally invasive and give you a more detailed view of what is going on with your teeth.  You can learn more about the benefits of digital X-rays here

Your Dentist Will Discuss Your Dental Habits

At some point during your exam, your dentist will want to have a chat with you about your oral hygiene. They may ask you about how often you brush or floss. They may demonstrate the proper techniques for you so that they can be sure you’re flossing properly.

It’s likely that your dentist will also want to talk about your diet and your lifestyle. Many habits, like smoking or drinking soda, can cause serious damage to your teeth. Your dentist may recommend that you cut back on these habits, particularly if your teeth are in bad shape.

This is one of the things that makes many people dread seeing the dentist. After all, no one wants to be lectured about their oral hygiene. With that said, it’s likely that your dentist will provide you with a lot of valuable insight and advice. Remember, your dentist wants your teeth to be in good health. Listen to them, communicate openly, and follow the advice that they give you.

They’ll Give You Recommendations

Depending on the results of your exam, your dentist may make a few recommendations for you. They may request that you schedule an appointment for a dental procedure. It’s likely that they’ll also tell you when you should have your next exam. If your teeth are in good health, your dentist may recommend an annual exam. If you have serious dental problems, your dentist might suggest more frequent exams.

If you’ve brought up any concerns during your appointment, your professional will also make recommendations that address those concerns. For example, they might suggest cosmetic treatments, like whitening. If you have any additional questions, make sure you speak up and get the information that you need.

Don’t put off your dental exam! These exams give your doctor the chance to take a look at your teeth so that they can spot and treat problems. Most oral health issues are far easier to treat when they’re detected early.

@itschloeandemilyI’m kidding guys listen to ur dentists #fyp #dentist #twins♬ Say So – Doja Cat


Hygiene Tips: How To Keep Clean

The orthodontic treatments are very effective for correcting defects in the alignment of our teeth, but require the cooperation of the patient in the daily care. There are some hygiene tricks for orthodontics that we can apply every day at home without visiting our dentist, which will make it easier for the doctor to do each check, ensure the efficiency of the treatment and avoid future diseases such as caries, halitosis or gum diseases, such as gingivitis or periodontitis.

It is known that the use of fixed appliances with brackets is somewhat uncomfortable in terms of hygiene: at the time of the meal, the device makes it easier for food remains to be stored between the brackets and teeth.

The market, sometimes, puts before us the best options and tricks for orthodontic hygiene. We can find many dental hygiene materials and accessories that can help all patients with braces. For example, toothbrushes whose bristles have a particular design and adapted to be more incisive and effective when cleaning mouths with apparatus.

The use of dental irrigators may also be recommended. These gadgets allow us to clean our teeth with a water jet at an adjustable pressure and temperature, something very satisfactory, and that achieves very good results in terms of the effectiveness of oral hygiene.

What Should Be The Routine For Proper Hygiene Of The Brackets?

From our experts, we advise carrying, whether or not the patient has braces, at least three mandatory daily brushings, which should be more when there are brackets in the mouth. It is ideal after each meal, and we recommend it.

In addition, specifically for patients who follow orthodontic treatments, it is necessary to go to reviews with a periodicity of between three and four weeks, as appropriate, so that our professional team can be on top of the evolution and the correct development of the treatment.

What Foods Should We Avoid While Wearing Braces?

The first rule that we usually explain is to reduce the intake of sugary foods considerably since it is the main source of decay. Without proper hygiene, bacterial plaque accumulates inevitably, being the beginning of several oral problems such as bad breath, bleeding gums, and tooth decay.

It is advisable at this stage not to resort to food with a very high hardness since they can cause the brackets to peel off or deform the existing equipment in the mouth. This is the case with bone foods, whether olives or different types of fruit, which are not recommended at the same level as nuts, gum, or gummies, should be avoided.

A very common practice that should be avoided for the sake of oral health, especially in those who follow orthodontic treatments, is to manipulate objects with their mouth and teeth: it is strictly prohibited. To do so is to expose yourself to a great risk of accident, completely avoidable, and that can be very harmful.

Why Is It Important To Maximize Hygiene During Treatment With Fixed Appliances?

Perfectly clean teeth tend to move much better and respond more effectively to the movements we print. The risk of bleeding and swelling of the gums decreases markedly.

Having clean teeth gives a sensation of freshness in the mouth that is difficult to explain, noticing you and everyone around you, so whether or not you are treated with appliances, it is advisable to brush your teeth three times a day, but the dentist’s supervision and work remain essential for the effectiveness of the treatment.…

Tips For Students Considering Studying

The pre-election stage of the university career is usually complicated. It is a decision that will mark the rest of the students’ lives, which many faces without too much information and without the certainty of knowing exactly what they want. Although many do have clear vocation and preferences, others need a little push. That is why from our experts, we want to give some advice for those students who consider studying the career of Dentistry.

Dentistry is a specialty that is dedicated to the study of teeth, gums and bones, their pathologies, and ailments. It is the discipline responsible for everything related to the stomatognathic apparatus, formed by the set of organs and tissues found in the mouth, part of the skull, face and neck, and its professionals are regulated by the General Council of Dental Associations and the professional associations of each region.

In recent years, Dentistry has undergone some important changes for different reasons. Formerly, the solution to eliminate the pain of a tooth was the withdrawal of it, without giving more options, so the subsequent complications were greater than the current ones.

Also, the sector itself has undergone a transformation. Oral health services have experienced growth, although the incidence of tooth decay in children and adolescents has decreased. The trend of this last decade in dentistry is aimed at the improvement of periodontal, aesthetic problems, malocclusions, and absences of missing teeth.

Dentistry As A Career

The Bachelor of Dentistry as independent studies to those of Medicine is established in 1986. From that moment, there was an exponential increase in the number of dentists that has not been correlated with an increase in the population, so it must be understood that there are more and more professionals for the same number of inhabitants. It is a phenomenon that has also occurred in professions such as nursing, veterinary, optics, or physiotherapy, among many others.

More and more universities are offering this career. A very important factor for student learning is the realization of academic practices somewhere where the work for which they are preparing is professionally developed. Therefore, the universities themselves have polyclinics and clinics in which very comprehensive practice programs are developed.

The students in fourth and fifth grade begin to treat real patients, who are informed of all the running and the university character of the clinic, which serves to toughen as dental professionals and begin to realize everything they have studied in books.

Is it advisable to do a master’s degree in dentistry?

Currently, there are countless postgraduate courses and masters taught by professionals of the highest level, which give the opportunity to all those professionals who need to incorporate them into their day to day as a great added value.

The preparation, update, and increase of knowledge are fundamental in this profession since we are in a continuous process of change and evolution. It is the order of the day the appearance of advances, new materials, and technologies that help us improve the quality of our treatments in order to offer all patients a better service.

In addition to complementing what was studied in the university with some subsequent specialization, students can evolve and improve their professional profile in different ways. One of the most recurrent is international mobility, widely recognized as one of the best experiences for the professional improvement of a dentist.

There are professionals who go abroad for subsistence since they see in it the only way to practice their profession; others who do it to grow professionally; some also seek personal fulfillment by developing their profession while living in another country.

Most Used Tips To Take Care Of Your Mouth

We think that simply brushing is enough, but we do not realize that the teeth are organs exposed to multiple attacks, and that is why we must exercise extreme care in order to enjoy a good denture for many years.

Brush Your Teeth After Each Food Intake

This is known, but treatable. When eating, the mouth becomes quite acidic, much more if what we have eaten or drunk was, such as juices, etc. And this acid is not good for the enamel that protects our teeth, so it is convenient to drink a little water and wait around 40 minutes for acidity levels to be reduced and thus do not damage the enamel when brushing.

Do Not Leave Any Rest

Manual brushing is a good principle, but it should be more thorough. You can use dental floss, but I recommend using irrigators and electric brushes. It is important to eliminate any rest, as it can be a focus of problems, from decay to bad breath.

Watch Your Diet

It is not only important to monitor the consumption of sugar, whose effects on tooth decay are well known, but the frequency of meals, since, as we have said before when we eat, we acidify the ph of our mouth, which weakens the enamel of teeth. So better not peck.

Avoid Tobacco And Alcohol

At first glance, the relationship that they can have with oral health may seem unimportant, but the difference between the population that consumes these substances and those that do not exist is surprising, as well as how quickly it improves upon abandonment.

Give Water And Milk

Water and milk for children under three are the best option. Nutritionists recommend not adding sugar to food or weaning drinks.

Replace The Bottle With Glasses From The Year

The Public Health System in England advises parents to encourage their children to drink from a free flow cup after six months of age and stop bottle feeding from 12 months of age. Teaching a child to drink with a straw can also help.

Brush Your Teeth Twice a Day

It is recommended to start brushing the teeth of children as soon as the first tooth appears with a paste without fluoride and supervise its brushing until the child is seven or eight years old. From the age of three, it is advisable to use only a small amount of fluoride toothpaste.

Use Sugar Free Medications

Parents are also advised to ask if a sugar-free medication is available and remind the doctor about this when making a prescription for the child.

As you can see, it is very simple to carry out these tips, and they will make your oral health improve quickly.

The Logical Dentist

The human brain doesn’t always think logically. College students’ performance on logic problems is not a pretty sight. Steven Pinker (How The Mind Works, 1997) discusses the following student logic test: There are some archeologists, biologists, and chess players in a room. None of the archeologists are biologists. All of the biologists are chess players. What, if anything follows? A majority of students conclude that none of the archeologists are chess players, which is not valid. None of them conclude that some of the chess players are not archeologists, which is valid. In fact, one fifth claim that the premises allow no valid inferences.

Patrick Shaw (Logic and its Limits, 1997) defines a logical argument as “one which is sound; a logical person is one who habitually uses sound arguments.” Sound arguments are essential for logical decision-making. Sound arguments are progressively built, brick by brick, by assembling a string of premises that lead to a reasonable concludion. The conclusions are increasingly valuable if they stand up to observation over time. The logical argument building process often sounds like… If ‘X’ is true, and ‘Y’ is also true, therefore ‘Z’ must then be true. A sound argument can be very simple, such as:

Many animals build nests according to a pattern, which varies little within the species. In some instances, the offspring have had no opportunity to learn from their parents. There must, therefore, be at least some innate tendency controlling the activity. (An argument from Boring, Langfeld, and Weld, Foundations of Psychology, 1948.)

Premise 1: Many animals build nests according to a pattern, which varies little within the species.
Premise 2: In some instances the offspring have not been taught by their parents to build the characteristic nest.
Conclusion: There is at least some innate tendency controlling the activity.

Another example of s simple logical argument:

All fish are cold-blooded, and no whales are cold-blooded; so whales are not fish.

Premise 1: All fish are cold-blooded.
Premise 2: Whales are warm-blooded.
Conclusion: Whales are not fish.

Of course, not all logical arguments are so simple, and the task of assessing arguments– the validity of the premises and conclusions both– is a challenging one that is influenced not only by our capacity for logical thought, but also our beliefs and personal experience. Simply because an argument is formatted as ‘if… then… therefore’ does not make it a sound argument. Consider a slightly more vague argument:

Premise 1: All vitamins are nutritious.
Premise 2: Some nutritious things are not cheap.
Conclusion: Some vitamins are expensive.

Most people will hesitate to agree with this conclusion and even if it is accepted it is of marginal value due to the vagueness of both the premises and the conclusion. If any of the premises are not true, then the conclusion will likely not be true– but the argument may remain sound from a purely logical point of view. As Shaw points out: “It must be stressed that to ask whether a conclusion follows is not the same as asking whether that conclusion is true. From the point of view of logic, truth is not of immediate account. A conclusion follows from the premises in this sense: if one grants the premises then one must, to be consistent, also accept the conclusion. If the premises are true, then the conclusion must be true. Which is not to say that the premises and conclusion are true: whether or not they are is a different problem.” For example:

Premise 1: All students are teapots.
Premise 2: Our dog is a student.
Conclusion: Our dog is a teapot.

Obviously both premises are false and so is the conclusion. Yet the argument is logically sound with the conclusion properly built upon the premises. Anyone who accepts these premises would be logically committed to accept the conclusion. The lack of concern with truth can seem strange at first, but limiting logical arguments to only the realm of known truths and current beliefs would limit the boundary of useful conclusions that might be examined.

Mathematics is filled with logical arguments. You may remember from your school days such problems as this…

Bill is eight years older than John, and in two years time he will be twice as old as John. How old is Bill?

Conclusion sequence:
From premise 2, it follows that x / 2 = 2y + 4
Subtracting two from each side we get x = 2y + 2
Since y + 8 and 2y + 2 both equal x, it follows that they equal each other : 2y + 2 = y + 8
Subtracting y + 2 from each side we get y = 6
John’s age is 6 and Bill is 8 years older; therefore Bill is 14.

Mathematical logic demonstrates how a series of very trivial steps can eventually lead to an answer that is a considerable distance from the original problem. In the history of science we often observe how scientists made many observations about the Earth, assembled them into premises, and were then able to make useful conclusions.

For example, because coal seams have been found in Antartica (observation/premise), the climate there was once warmer than it is now (sub-conclusion/new premise), therefore either the geographical location of the continents has shifted (possible conclusion to test further) or the whole earth was once warmer than it is now (alterative conclusion to test). The eventual theory of plate tectonics, certainly a beautifully logical argument widely accepted today, arose from building a series of useful premises based on field observations and testing alternative conclusions.

Logic and Truth… to be continued…